sabato 23 settembre 2017

Media & Tech L'Approfondimento - 23/09/2017

Media & Tech - 23/09/2017

Glenn Hauser logs September 22-23, 2017

** CUBA. 6100, Sept 23 at 0548, RHC English is gone again from here but remains on overkill: 6145, S9+20 undermodulated; 6060, S9+20 good mod; 6000 S9+20 undermod but suff; 5040 VG S9+30, plugging an upcoming concert in Toronto even with ticket info (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** MEXICO. 870, Sept 23 at 1202, XETAR Guachochi, Chihuahua, La Voz de la Sierra Tarahumara, is playing Mexican NA performed a cappella by amateur children`s choir, different version than heard on countless other stations. 1203 sign-on in Spanish and native languages, all of which have no alternative but to pronounce the call letters repeatedly in Spanish. 1205 plug parent org CDI with Jew`s harp accompaniment. We are now in season to hear this 10 kW daytimer well at sign-on; our sunrise 1220 UT, theirs 1257 UT, per
https://www.worldweatheronline.com/guachochi-weather/chihuahua/mx.aspx
as gaisma.com is quite deficient with Chihuahua, not even including the capital city (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** MEXICO. 6185, re my previous report of unID here, JBA carrier at 0558 Sept 22, Ron Howard replied, 

``6185, Radio Educación, on Sept 22, with anomaly. 0502-0523+; heard with unusually strong signal, whereas earlier I had poor reception here, so rather strange conditions; perhaps running late with special news, as many items about the Puerto Rico hurricane, including many sound bites in English about the storm; followed by economic news; still going at 0523. It was on Sept 11 that I noted their 0501* (Ron Howard, Asilomar State Beach, CA, Etón E1, antenna: 100' long wire, dxldyg via DX LISTENING DIGEST)`` 

6185, Sept 23 at 0253, VP carrier, presumed XEPPM much weaker than usual: evidently the earthquake disrupted its output strength and hours. At 0459 now it`s poor S9 but JBM; 0533 much better with classical music, but off by 0546 recheck (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** NORTH AMERICA. Haven`t logged any pirates for a couple weeks, except YHWH 7470 (and not him either UT Sept 23), perhaps because I haven`t been tuning much in prime pirate time of 23-01 UT on 43m, but also poor conditions, lots of noise. 

Sept 23 at 0022 I have a weak AM carrier on 6965, identified by these as Doctor Detroit:
https://www.hfunderground.com/board/index.php/topic,37528.0.html

And also a JBA carrier on 6925, Sept 23 at 0022, Pee Wee per these:
https://www.hfunderground.com/board/index.php/topic,37530.0.html
including a CW ID at 0022 which I couldn`t hear. I guess they mean Morse code on MCW, altho part of the logs were in USB; on 6924.7 (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. WORLD OF RADIO 1896 monitoring: confirmed Friday Sept 22 at 2330 on WBCQ, 9330.15v-CUSB, poor in noise level. 

Confirmed by Ivo Ivanov, Bulgaria: 
GERMANY Fair signal of HLR relays on 6190-CUSB, Sept 23
World of Radio #1896
0630-0700 on 6190 GOH 001 kW / 230 deg to CeEu English
Sathttp://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/fair-signal-of-hlr-relays-on-6190cusb.html

As usual, not confirmed by UTwente, Sat Sept 23 at 1431 on HLR 7265-CUSB --- only a weak signal with other talk, music, also at 1444 recheck, which must be CRI Sinhala via East Turkistan. Next:
Sat 1930v  WA0RCR 1860-AM ND
Sat 2230   WBCQ 9330v-CUSB to WSW
Sat 2300   WRMI 11580 to NE
Sun 0200   WRMI 11580 to NE
Sun 0315v  WA0RCR 1860-AM ND
Sun 1030   HLR  9485-CUSB to WSW
Sun 2330   WBCQ 9330v-CUSB to WSW
Mon 0300v  WBCQ 5130v Area 51 to WSW
Mon 0330   WRMI 9955 to SSE
Mon 2330   WBCQ 9330v-CUSB to WSW
Tue 0030   WRMI 7730 to WNW
(Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 9955, Fri Sept 22 at 2006, WRMI with Radio Prague news in English, sports; fair S4-S6 and no jamming; 2004 RP theme and mid-ID, more news. So it seems WRMI has started a variety-programming hour on 160-degree #4 transmitter, at 20-21, carved out from BS, which still shows as daily 15-21 UT at http://www.tinuyrl.com/WRMI9955 --- Is this every day or M-F? 

Yesterday I had `Frecuencia al Dia` until 2100, and recheck today at 2056, too late to tell what, but song seems in Spanish, 2059 announcements as jamming is again ramping up to severe level. Radio Prague English has been scheduled only at: 12 on 9955, 2330 on 5850, 0200 on 9395, 0230 on 11580, not all of them 7-daily; so now also at 2000 on 9955.

Picking up WRMI FB posts since my last report:

``WRMI Radio Miami International
2000 UTC Thursday September 21 - Hallelujah! We have Transmitter 13 (7730 kHz) ready to go at 2300 UTC today. That means all of our frequencies are back on the air except 15770, which was using the antenna that fell down in the hurricane on September 10. We have to evaluate what if anything can be done about that. Meantime, the 15770 kHz programming is being switched to other frequencies, and we have extended our schedule on 7780 and 11825 kHz. We still have a lot of lines down in the antenna field, but this will be repaired gradually as time allows [11825: now 13-03, 355 degrees from #8, all BS]

2200 UTC Friday September 22 - Our engineers have finally fixed the very long transmission lines for Transmitter 14, so our programming to Cuba and the Caribbean on 5950 kHz is now back on Transmitter 14 with the 181-degree antenna instead of Transmitter 3. Transmitter 3 is now in standby. We still have a lot of transmission lines to repair for antennas that we are not currently using, but this will be done on a gradual basis. Thanks again to Facility Manager Pat Travers, Senior Transmitter Engineer Don Frish and the whole team here at WRMI for getting us back to normal since Hurricane Irma hit`` (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 7490.05v-AM, UT Sat Sept 23 at 0023, WBCQ with `Allan Weiner Worldwide` in progress, conversation with Timtron. 7490 is S9+20/30 here, a far cry above // 5130.34v-AM, S9 to S9+10; and // 3250, poor S8-S9, the latter two insufficient to overcome noise. Evidently quite the contrary closer to ME, where 7490 skips over (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** ZANZIBAR. 11735, Sept 22 at 2005, no signal from ZBC (nor RTM Brasil either). Other Zanz frequency 6015 has also been reported off, so are they completely gone from SW? (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

This report dispatched at 1645 UT September 23

Sep 23 2017 W4HM Daily Solar Space & Geomagnetic Weather Discussion

Hello to my fellow hamateur radio and SWL radio enthusiasts around the world.
Welcome to my “not for profit” W4HM Daily Solar, Space & Geomagnetic Weather Discussion.
If you find this daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion useful to your hamateur and SWL radio activities, feel free to drop me a line and let me know that at
Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and give me credit for it.
Supporting images associated with my daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion can be found in my Facebook account at
and at
but without supporting images.
It's a NO SPAM voluntary "opt" in email type group hosted by contesting on line (COL), so you have to sign up by using an existing email address and creating a password.
And last but not least I also post some snippets of daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on and a few images in my Twitter account at https://twitter.com/GiellaW4hm .
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Published on Saturday September 23, 2017 at 1530 UTC
Solar Space & Geomagnetic Weather Conditions on Friday September 22, 2017-
Solar activity had been very low.
Earth's geomagnetic field had been at a quiet geomagnetic level.
The three daily solar flux index (SFI) numbers had been 76.1 77.7 78.2.
The official daily sunspot number (SSN) had been 22.
In 2017 officially there were 56 days with a daily sunspot number (SSN) of 0. Considering that solar minimum won't occur for approximately 2 more years, +/- 1 year, daily SSN's of 0 are occurring unusually early.
In 2016 officially there were 32 days with a daily sunspot number (SSN) of 0.
As we move forward towards the next solar minimum between solar cycle #24 and #25 the number of days with a 0 daily SSN will steadily increase. Eventually every day for many, many, many months will see a 0, the big goose egg.
In 2008 I forecasted solar cycle 24 to be the weakest in the past 100 years and that forecast verified. I also forecasted that solar cycle 25 would be virtually nonexistent, similar to the Dalton type solar minimum that occurred in the early 1800's.
Other than sunspot magnetic polarity it will probably be very difficult to determine when solar cycle 24 ended and solar cycle 25 began.
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Officially there had been 1 earth facing sunspot group (SSG).
Sunspot group (SSG) #12681 was located near S13E47 with a simple alpha magnetic signature. It was capable of producing a small in size C class solar flare. It was approaching the west limb of the sun.
There had been 1 unofficial and as of yet unnumbered earth facing sunspot group (SSG) located near
N06W16.
There had been no returning (recurrent) sunspot groups.
(((((On Saturday September 23, 2017 I say that monster sunspot group #12673 will rise above the east limb of the sun on approximately Sunday September 24, 2017.)))))
There had been no small in size C class solar flare or larger.
There had been no directly earth aimed (geoeffective) coronal mass ejection (CME).
There had been no partially earth aimed coronal mass ejection (CME).
There had been no directly (geoeffective) or partially earth aimed coronal mass ejection (CME) related high latitude energetic proton storm >10 MeV (10+0).
The high latitude absorption via earths over ionized D layer is called polar cap absorption. The mid latitude absorption is caused by energetic electrons and protons spiraling down earth’s magnetic field lines into the equatorial ring current.
There had been no earth aimed solar flare related x-ray day side solar fade out (SFO).
There had been no directly earth aimed (geoeffective) collapsing magnetic filament eruption.
The 24 hour period 3 hour interval planetary K index (Kp) had been at quiet geomagnetic conditions of
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2.
The 24 hour period 3 hour interval Boulder, CO K index had been at unsettled to quiet geomagnetic conditions of
1 1 3 0 1 2 1 2.
The K(p) geomagnetic indices are-
0-2- quiet                                                                                                                                                                                                3- unsettled                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4- active                                                                                                                                                                                                 5- minor geomagnetic storming                                                                                                                                                                     6- moderate                                                                                                                                                                                                           7- strong                                                                                                                                                                                                                   8- severe                                                                                                                                                                                                                9- extreme                                                                                                                                                                                            10- our atmosphere just got cooked off like on Mars and we are all dead.
The 24 hour period maximum and minimum planetary A index (Ap) had ranged between
9 and 3,
which was at unsettled to quiet geomagnetic conditions.
The Ap geomagnetic indices are-
0-7- quiet                                                                                                                                                                                                           8-15- unsettled                                                                                                                                                                                                      16-29- active                                                                                                                                                                                                           30-49- minor geomagnetic storm                                                                                                                                                                   50-99- major                                                                                                                                                                                                 100-400- severe                                                                                                                                                                                 >401- our atmosphere just got cooked off like on Mars and we are all dead.
The 24 hour period maximum background x-ray flux had been at B3.25.
The 24 hour period maximum southward swing of the vertical component (Bz) of earth's geomagnetic magnetic field had been at approximately

-5 nT south.

The larger the negative value the further south-north that visible aurora can possibly be observed outside of the polar regions.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum disturbance storm time index (Dst) had ranged between
-26 and -6 nT.
The 24 hour period maximum and minimum solar wind speed ranged had ranged between
391 and 333 km/s.
There was 1 recurrent large in size earth facing transequatorial coronal hole (CH) #826 (#822).
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GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL HF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-
NOTE!!! The propagation indices "interpretations" are my personal intellectual property. Therefore the radio wave propagation indices interpretations contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2017 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM, all rights reserved. Reproduction of information herein is allowed without permission in advance as long as proper credit is given.
All 14 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to see the best global high frequency radio wave propagation possible, something that happens rarely.
1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.
2.) A daily sunspot number of 150 or higher, 200 or higher best.
3.) A daily sunspot number of greater than 100 for routine stable formation of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.
4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days consecutively are best.
5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.
6.) Energetic protons no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).
7.) Background x-ray flux levels greater than B1 for several days consecutively, greater than C1 best.
8.) No current STRATWARM alert.
9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign, indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF signals, when the Kp is above 3.
10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A positive number is best.
11.) Rising positive T index number. The T Index tracks with the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and sunspot number (SSN) and indicates the capability of the F2 layer to refract RF signals.
12.) Galactic cosmic rays decrease to -3 units below zero and trending towards zero.
13.) Energetic electron flux levels no greater than 2 MeV (2+0).
14. A solar wind speed of less than 300 km/s for several days consecutively.
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Standard Disclaimer-
Note! I use error prone RAW public domain data from the NOAA Space Environment Center, other U.S. government entities, educational institutions and some private individuals, to produce my daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion. This data is gathered and made public by the U.S. Government using taxpayer $$$ (including mine).
However this daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion that I produce from the RAW public domain data is my personal intellectual property. Therefore this daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2017 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM.

W4HM Daily HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast #266

Hello to my fellow hamateur radio and SWL radio enthusiasts around the world.

Welcome to my “not for profit” W4HM Daily HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast.

If you find this daily HF radio wave propagation forecast useful to your hamateur and SWL radio activities, feel free to drop me a line and let me know that at

thomasfgiella@gmail.com .

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF radio wave propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and give me credit for it.

Supporting images associated with my daily HF radio wave propagation forecast can be found in my Facebook account at

https://www.facebook.com/thomasfranklingiellaw4hm

and at

http://lists.contesting.com/mailman/listinfo/spaceweather

but without supporting images.

It's a NO SPAM voluntary "opt" in email type group hosted by contesting on line (COL), so you have to sign up by using an existing email address and creating a password.

And last but not least I also post some snippets of solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on and some images in my Twitter account at https://twitter.com/GiellaW4hm .

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#266 Issued Saturday September 23, 2017 at 1500 UTC

Global Daily HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast-

We are now entering the fall/spring equinox type of HF radio wave propagation conditions. Globally HF radio wave propagation conditions are most evenly balanced across the equator during the fall and spring equinox.

HF radio wave propagation conditions trend- improving.

Northern Hemisphere Radio Wave Propagation Forecast-

80-60 (75-60) meters- good at night and poor at day,
40-30 (41-25) meters- good at night and fair at day,
20-17 (22-15) meters- very poor at night and good at day,
15 (13) meters- very poor at night and fair to good at day,
12 (11) meters- very poor at night and fair at day.
10 (11) meters- very poor at night and poor to fair at day.

During the northern hemisphere winter season the higher HF bands of 10-20 meters (11-19 meters) will close sooner due to less sun light time wise illuminating the ionosphere than in the summer season. But the maximum useable frequency (MUF) is higher in the northern hemisphere as the F layer of the ionosphere is lower in height and is more dense.

Southern Hemisphere Radio Wave Propagation Forecast-

80-60 (75-60) meters- good at night and poor at day,
40-30 (41-25) meters- good at night and fair at day,
20-17 (22-15) meters- very poor at night and good at day,
15 (13) meters- very poor at night and fair to good at day,
12 (11) meters- very poor at night and fair at day.
10 (11) meters- very poor at night and poor to fair at day.

Keep in mind that almost daily during the southern hemisphere summer season you will find that the 10 (11) meter bands will open via short north-south and east-west propagation paths via sporadic E (Es). Also when multiple sporadic E (Es) clouds form and line up favorably much longer propagation paths open up on east-west paths. And last but not least north-south propagation paths occur across the equator via trans equatorial propagation (TEP).

Received RF signal strength scale-
Very Good- +1 over S9 Or Greater
Good- S7-9
Fair- S4-6
Poor- S1-3
Very Poor- S0

Meter Band Equivalents
Ham & SWL
160->   90
80->     75
60->     60
40->     49, 41
30->     31, 25
20->     22, 19
17->    16, 15
15->    13
12,10-> 11

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This HF Radio wave propagation forecast is produced based on the SIGINT_CAP HF radio wave propagation prediction software. I wrote it beginning in the late 1980’s but I’m sorry to say that it can’t be distributed to the general public.

And though this HF radio wave propagation forecast is produced based on the SIGINT_CAP, I do check the actual band conditions at my location in the USA and tweak the forecast manually where and when necessary. I also check global HF radio wave propagation conditions via remoted radio receivers around on every continent of the globe and tweak the forecast manually if and when necessary.

The hamateur radio JT65A mode RF signal levels received are based on 5 watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio PSK31 mode RF signal levels received are based on 25 watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio CW mode RF signal levels received are based on 50 watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio SSB RF mode signal levels received are based on 100 watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The HF shortwave broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on 100,000 watts (100 kw) and a typical high gain VOA type curtain array antenna.

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Please keep in mind that this is a relatively simplified HF radio wave
propagation forecast, so as to keep it easily understandable and applicable by the average radio enthusiast.

Globally HF radio wave propagation conditions are most evenly balanced
during the fall and spring equinoxes and most diametrically opposed during
the summer and winter solstices.

Conditions change daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and by decade, as the
sun rises and sets at different times and at different angles from the
ecliptic, as well as by radio wave frequency. This is due to changes in the
maximum usable frequency (MUF), lowest usable frequency (LUF) and F layer
critical frequency (FoF2).

The D and E layers also come into play through RF radio wave signal
absorption and refraction. And then there is sporadic E (Es) radio wave
propagation that can really throw a wrench into the gears so to speak.

Things like sporadic E (Es) radio wave propagation and lightning storm
static can impact HF radio wave propagation in an unpredictable manner and
mostly bad.

Ongoing solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on also impact HF radio
wave propagation conditions in a negative manner.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Standard Disclaimer-

Note! I use error prone RAW public domain data from the NOAA Space
Environment Center, other U.S. government entities and educational
institutions, to produce this daily HF radio wave propagation
forecast. This data is gathered and made public by the U.S. Government using
taxpayer $$$ (including mine).

However this daily HF propagation forecast that I produce from the RAW public domain data is my personal intellectual property. Therefore this daily HF radio wave propagation forecast contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2017 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF radio wave propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Also HF radio wave propagation forecasting is still an inexact
science. The forecasts are not official but for educational and hobby
related purposes only and are subject to human error and acts of God,
therefore no guarantee or warranty implied.

New Shortwave Radio Service for Europe is on air, Sept.23

New Shortwave Radio Service for Europe is on air, Sept.23
1400-1600 on  6160 WIS 001 kW / non-dir to NWEu English Mon-Sat

--


73! Ivo Ivanov
More information on the shortwave listening hobby,
please visit to http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com

QTH-1: Patreshko, Bulgaria
Receiver: Afedri SDR
Software: SDR-Console v2.3(using remote connection)
Antennas: various Inverted V and beverage antennas.

QTH-2: Sofia OK2, Bulgaria
Receiver: Sony ICF-2001D
Antenna: 30 m. long wire

Test frequencies of Armenian Public Radio now on HFCC

ARMENIA   Test frequencies of Armenian Public Radio via Shortwaveservice
now are registered in HFCC Database as "For new organization" as follows
0200-0500 on  6155 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs, not yet used for tests
0630-2100 on  6155 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs, not yet used for tests*
0230-2100 on  7320 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs various langs & Armenian
0230-2100 on  7520 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs various langs & Armenian
0800-1800 on  9580 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs various langs & Armenian
*from 0730 on 6155 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs Russian/Armenian Sept.23
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/test-frequencies-of-armenian-public.html


--

73! Ivo Ivanov
More information on the shortwave listening hobby,
please visit to http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com

QTH-1: Patreshko, Bulgaria
Receiver: Afedri SDR
Software: SDR-Console v2.3(using remote connection)
Antennas: various Inverted V and beverage antennas.

QTH-2: Sofia OK2, Bulgaria
Receiver: Sony ICF-2001D
Antenna: 30 m. long wire

SWLDXBulgaria News September 23

ARMENIA   Test frequencies of Armenian Public Radio via Shortwaveservice
now are registered in HFCC Database as "For new organization" as follows
0200-0500 on  6155 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs, not yet used for tests
0630-2100 on  6155 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs, not yet used for tests*
0230-2100 on  7320 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs various langs & Armenian
0230-2100 on  7520 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs various langs & Armenian
0800-1800 on  9580 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs various langs & Armenian
*from 0730 on 6155 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs Russian/Armenian Sept.23
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/test-frequencies-of-armenian-public.html

CANADA(non)   Updated A-17 schedule of BVBroadcasting via MBR and BaBcoCk
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2017/09/updated-17-schedule-of-bvbroadcasting.html

EGYPT   Reception of unidentified station with Egyptian music, Sept.23:
0900-0920 on  9400 unknown tx / unknown to ????, fair/good signal today
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/unidentified-station-with-egyptian_23.html

GERMANY(non)   Fair signal of HLR relays on 6190CUSB, Sept.23
Switzerland In Sound
0600-0630 on  6190 GOH 001 kW / 230 deg to CeEu English Sat
World of Radio#1896
0630-0700 on  6190 GOH 001 kW / 230 deg to CeEu English Sat
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/fair-signal-of-hlr-relays-on-6190cusb.html

GERMANY(non)   Reception of Radio Waves International via Channel 292, Sept.23
0700-0800 on  6070 ROB 025 kW / non-dir to CeEu Fr/En/Ge/It Sat, good signal:
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/reception-of-radio-waves-international_23.html

ROMANIA(non)   Reception of IRRS Radio City via ROU RadioCom on Sept.23
0800-0900 on  9510 SAF 100 kW / 300 deg to WeEu German Sat, fair signal
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/reception-of-irrs-radio-city-via-rou_23.html

UNIDentified open carrier/test tone, Sept.23:
0800-0830 on 11700 unknown tx site, very good
A-17 on 11700 kHz: BBC, RFI, RRO, VAT and BVB
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/unidentified-open-carriertest-tone-on.html

USA   Additional 2 hrs are registered in HFCC from WRMI tx#2, Sept.22
0200-0300 on  5985 YFR 100 kW / 222 deg to MEXI Eng/Spa additional 1h
0300-0400 on  5985 YFR 100 kW / 222 deg to MEXI Spanish R.Taiwan Int.
0400-0430 on  5985 YFR 100 kW / 222 deg to MEXI Spanish R.Japan (NHK)
0430-0500 on  5985 YFR 100 kW / 222 deg to MEXI Various WRMI programs
0500-0600 on  5985 YFR 100 kW / 222 deg to MEXI Eng/Spa additional 1h
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/additional-two-hours-are-registered-in.html

USA   WHRI Angel 2 relay religious programs & Brother HySTAIRical, Sept.23:
0500-0600 on  9825 HRI 250 kW / 047 deg to WeEu English religious pxs, good
0600-0800 on  7355 HRI 250 kW / 047 deg to WeEu English Brother Stair, good
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/whri-angel-2-relay-religious-programs.html

USA   Good signal of Brother HySTAIRical via WRMI Okeechobee tx#1 on Sept.23
0515&0600 on  7780 YFR 100 kW / 044 deg to WeEu English, scheduled 1500-1200
http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.bg/2017/09/good-signal-of-brother-hystairical-via.html


--

73! Ivo Ivanov
More information on the shortwave listening hobby,
please visit to http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com

QTH-1: Patreshko, Bulgaria
Receiver: Afedri SDR
Software: SDR-Console v2.3(using remote connection)
Antennas: various Inverted V and beverage antennas.

QTH-2: Sofia OK2, Bulgaria
Receiver: Sony ICF-2001D
Antenna: 30 m. long wire

Propagation News – 24 September 2017

Last week saw sunspot numbers decline, but geomagnetic conditions become more settled. This, plus the fact we are heading into autumn, resulted in better HF conditions, with 21MHz opening to DX for short periods. The CS3B Madeira and 4X6TU Israel beacons on 21.150MHz were both audible at times and Jim, G3YLA reports working S01WS in Western Sahara on the band. 

Not to be outdone, the lower bands have also been active, with UK operators on the DXpedition to St Pierre and Miquelon being worked from the UK on 160, 80, 40 and 30 metres. The better critical frequencies and therefore higher MUFs mean 40 metres has also been open to shorter skip at times, perhaps with a minimum of about 500km. 

Next week NOAA predicts the solar flux index may increase slowly up to and beyond 100 once again. However, there is a strong possibility that geomagnetic conditions may be unsettled all week due to coronal hole activity and the potential for coronal mass ejections from the active sunspots that are predicted. 

Currently, VOACAP Online suggests that reasonably-equipped UK stations have around a 50 percent chance of working New York on 20 metres CW from around 1800 to 2030hrs. This should improve to about 70 percent as we head into mid-October, with 17 and 15 metres both offering better reliability too. 

With the better autumnal HF conditions coming, it is worth playing with the online tools at VOACAP.com and www.predtest.uk to get a better understanding of the best times to work various parts of the world on HF. 

And now the VHF and up propagation news: 

It’s been a good week for rain scatter on the GHz bands, with daily propagation over to the Netherlands and Belgium and intra-UK. Sadly this has not been matched by activity, but a few good QSOs were reported by those who were aware. 

This week sees a welcome return of high pressure nearby, to the east of the UK. This will allow stations in the south and east of the country to enjoy slightly enhanced conditions. The position of the high would favour tropo paths up the east coast and across the southern North Sea. This will probably be a brief period of tropo before low pressure from the Atlantic drifts in towards the UK in the second half of the week. The high remains nearby over Scandinavia, with a ridge extending southwest across France into Spain. This may possibly offer some tropo options to the south for stations on the south coast. 

There is a low rate meteor shower, the daytime Sextantids, on Wednesday, so continue to look before dawn for the best random meteor scatter contacts. 

The Moon is at maximum negative declination and apogee on Wednesday so losses are at their greatest and Moon windows short. So this is a good week to catch up on antenna maintenance for the autumn.

Test transmission of Armenian Public Radio on new frequency on Sept.23

ARMENIA    Test transmission of Armenian Public Radio on new frequency on Sept.23:
from 0732 on  6155 ERV 100 kW / 192 deg to WeAs Russian, NOT Armenian, weak signal
Videos will be added later today


--

73! Ivo Ivanov
More information on the shortwave listening hobby,
please visit to http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com

QTH-1: Patreshko, Bulgaria
Receiver: Afedri SDR
Software: SDR-Console v2.3(using remote connection)
Antennas: various Inverted V and beverage antennas.

QTH-2: Sofia OK2, Bulgaria
Receiver: Sony ICF-2001D
Antenna: 30 m. long wire

Agenda DX 23/09/2017

ANNIVERSARIO EMITTENTI
Radio Chota, Perù 4890 Khz (1978)
Solomon Islands Broadcasting Service (1952)

FESTE NAZIONALI
Festa Nazionale in Arabia Saudita

venerdì 22 settembre 2017

Glenn Hauser logs September 21-22, 2017

** ASCENSION. 7305, Sept 22 at 0605, poor signal in French, mentions Vaticaine, but listed as BBC, to be followed by Hausa at 0630. No hum (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** CANADA. 1610 kHz, Fri Sept 22 at 0615 UT, YL in Luso Portuguese, talking about the press. No doubt CHHA Toronto, Voces Latinas, now with a little less QRM since PMS ANGUILLA tower is blown down. Program grid at
http://chha1610am.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/PostCard-CHHA-1610AM-2016.jpg
is not at all helpful, merely showing ALL NIGHT MUSIC at 1-6 am M-F, and nothing on Sat & Sun; oh look, it`s a biyear old, but what comes up direct from the current homepage (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** CHINA. 15600, Sept 22 at 1324, S3-S6 talk in unID language, 1325 upbeat music sounds gospel, YL sign-off including website in .ca, so I suspect BVBN via somesite until 1327*. BUT, HFCC, NDXC and EiBI all agree it`s only CRI in Malay via Kunming, 100 kW at 175 degrees; so she must have said .cn rather than .ca (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** INDONESIA. 3325, Sept 22 at 1258, S2-S3 music, no doubt RRI Palangkaraya, talk follows timesignal about 25 seconds late after 1300 --- don`t rely on it for navigation or you may run into a volcano! Still nothing on 9525- from VOI English. Astunori Ishida agrees, still no logs of that anywhen since Sept 13 (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** TIBET [non]. 15517, Sept 22 at 1322, JBA carrier, presumably Voice of Tibet via TAJIKISTAN, always on characteristic split frequencies ending in 2, 3, 7 or 8, while the ChiCom jammers can only reach -0 or -5 (Glenn Hauser, oK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** TURKEY. 15450.05v, Sept 22 at 1303, VOT with music at S3-S5. I keep checking the 1230 English broadcast USward beyond WEu, hoping for listenable reception, but not yet; maybe will improve autumnally. Characteristically off-frequency+plus like (all?) other Emirlers (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A [and non]. WORLD OF RADIO 1896 monitoring: confirmed Thursday September 21 at 2330 on WBCQ 9330.10v-CUSB, fair S8. Next:
Fri 2330   WBCQ 9330v-CUSB to WSW
Sat 0630   HLR  6190-CUSB to WSW
Sat 1431   HLR  7265-CUSB to WSW
Sat 1930v  WA0RCR 1860-AM ND
Sat 2230   WBCQ 9330v-CUSB to WSW
Sat 2300   WRMI 11580 to NE
Sun 0200   WRMI 11580 to NE
Sun 0315v  WA0RCR 1860-AM ND
Sun 1030   HLR  9485-CUSB to WSW
Sun 2330   WBCQ 9330v-CUSB to WSW
Mon 0300v  WBCQ 5130v Area 51 to WSW
Mon 0330   WRMI 9955 to SSE
Mon 2330   WBCQ 9330v-CUSB to WSW
Tue 0030   WRMI 7730 to WNW
(Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 9955, Thu Sept 21 at 2053, WRMI not with BS as scheduled 7 days a week at 15-21 UT, but instead ``Red Roses for a Blue Lady``, and ``el sonido de la música por la 92`` --- what`s this? More romantic music, and 2056 ID as `Frecuencia al Día`, so it was an aircheck of some FM station; on to DX logs spoken by someone in México, but sound like Claudio Galaz` detailed reports from Chile, in alfabetical order starting with Angola. 

Pulse jamming can now be heard on 9955, and rapidly ramping up to full bore wall-of-noise by 2100! When, until months ago, WRMI was airing a secret prepeat of Radio Libertad`s overt 2300 broadcast. But now on the 21-22 UT schedule are four negligible programs, today Thursday starting with Frank & Ernest. However, on Wednesday & Friday the hour is allegedly occupied by `Noches con Mirka` which at least is by a Cuban exile, if not overtly political. Anyhow, is WRMI now airing variety programming on 9955 at 20-21 instead of BS every day? Is FAD scheduled on anyfrequency at this time, like 11580? No, on Thursdays that hour is devoted to the redundant `Voice of VORW`.

Altho still dated effective Aug 3, the WRMI skedgrid at 
http://www.tinyurl.com/WRMI9955 
has in fact been updated, e.g. to show `Frecuencia al Día` at 1300 Thursdays, which just started today. But not in the case of 20-21 UT.

7730, Sept 21 at 2331 check, another WRMI transmitter/frequency now makes a post-Irma comeback, with BS // 7570 and 7780. The main hour to monitor 7730 for mostly more worthwhile non-BS programming is 00-01, as previously scheduled UT days:
Tue, Wavescan & WORLD OF RADIO
Wed, Jazz from the Left
Thu, Sounding Alarm, Wavescan
Fri, Voice of VORW
Sat, Frec al Dia, Wavescan
Sun, Wavescan, Radio IBC
Sun, Worship in Your Home
http://www.tinyurl.com/WRMIfqs

Also 7730: 06-08 UT Tue-Fri for RAE in Japanese, English; UT Sun 06-07 Radiogram and Radio Pinorama [Russian]. UT Mon 06-07 [blank] = World Music? Total span of 7730, #13 at 285 degrees, was and presumably is again: 23-14, BS occupying all the rest, except for other religious programs Sun & Mon at 07-08.

7730, Sept 22 at 0552 check, is JBA, slightly stronger than 7780 and weaker than 7570 where BS can be ascertained. It`s unusual for 7570 & 7730 to be so weak, but they have been lately: is it due to MUF propagation drop, or are these not back up to previous full power and same antennas? Before 0600 all three are BSing (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

UNIDENTIFIED. 6185, Sept 22 at 0553, JBA carrier. Nothing scheduled to account for it in HFCC, NDXC or EiBi. Mexico during CDT closes circa 0500* and if left on would be stronger than this: much weaker than 6180 VOA São Tomé. 

We do see some fantastical listings in HFCC for 6185: ``MKI``, RRI Manokwai, Indonesia in English! 1 kW at 01-05 & 07-10. Also imaginary is RRS, Irkutsk, Russia at 15-18. It lacks the REAL station, XEPPM, but includes Vatican in ``Hye`` = Armenian at 0200-0230 which is really 0210-0230, the only CCI to Radio Educación. Anyhow, whence is this carrier I am getting now? (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

This report despatched at 1641 UT September 22

Media & Tech - 22/09/2017

W4HM Daily HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast #265

Hello to my fellow hamateur radio and SWL radio enthusiasts around the world.

Welcome to my “not for profit” W4HM Daily HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast.

If you find this daily HF radio wave propagation forecast useful to your hamateur and SWL radio activities, feel free to drop me a line and let me know that at

thomasfgiella@gmail.com .

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF radio wave propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and give me credit for it.

Supporting images associated with my daily HF radio wave propagation forecast can be found in my Facebook account at

https://www.facebook.com/thomasfranklingiellaw4hm

and at

http://lists.contesting.com/mailman/listinfo/spaceweather

but without supporting images.

It's a NO SPAM voluntary "opt" in email type group hosted by contesting on line (COL), so you have to sign up by using an existing email address and creating a password.

And last but not least I also post some snippets of solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on and some images in my Twitter account at https://twitter.com/GiellaW4hm .

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#265 Issued Friday September 22, 2017 at 1430 UTC

Global Daily HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast-

We are now entering the fall/spring equinox type of HF radio wave propagation conditions. Globally HF radio wave propagation conditions are most evenly balanced across the equator during the fall and spring equinox.

HF radio wave propagation conditions trend- improving.

Northern Hemisphere Radio Wave Propagation Forecast-

80-60 (75-60) meters- good at night and poor at day,
40-30 (41-25) meters- good at night and fair at day,
20-17 (22-15) meters- very poor at night and good at day,
15 (13) meters- very poor at night and fair to good at day,
12 (11) meters- very poor at night and fair at day.
10 (11) meters- very poor at night and poor to fair at day.

During the northern hemisphere winter season the higher HF bands of 10-20 meters (11-19 meters) close sooner due to less sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the northern hemisphere. But the maximum useable frequency (MUF) is higher than in the northern hemisphere as the F layer of the ionosphere is lower in height and is more dense.

Southern Hemisphere Radio Wave Propagation Forecast-

80-60 (75-60) meters- good at night and poor at day,
40-30 (41-25) meters- good at night and fair at day,
20-17 (22-15) meters- very poor at night and good at day,
15 (13) meters- very poor at night and fair to good at day,
12 (11) meters- very poor at night and fair at day.
10 (11) meters- very poor at night and poor to fair at day.

Keep in mind that almost daily during the southern hemisphere summer season you will find that the 10 (11) meter bands will open via short north-south and east-west propagation paths via sporadic E (Es). Also when multiple sporadic E (Es) clouds form and line up favorably much longer propagation paths open up on east-west paths. And last but not least north-south propagation paths occur across the equator via trans equatorial propagation (TEP).

Received RF signal strength scale-
Very Good- +1 over S9 Or Greater
Good- S7-9
Fair- S4-6
Poor- S1-3
Very Poor- S0

Meter Band Equivalents
Ham & SWL
160->   90
80->     75
60->     60
40->     49, 41
30->     31, 25
20->     22, 19
17->    16, 15
15->    13
12,10-> 11

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This HF Radio wave propagation forecast is produced based on the SIGINT_CAP HF radio wave propagation prediction software. I wrote it beginning in the late 1980’s but I’m sorry to say that it can’t be distributed to the general public.

And though this HF radio wave propagation forecast is produced based on the SIGINT_CAP, I do check the actual band conditions at my location in the USA and tweak the forecast manually where and when necessary. I also check global HF radio wave propagation conditions via remoted radio receivers around on every continent of the globe and tweak the forecast manually if and when necessary.

The hamateur radio JT65A mode RF signal levels received are based on 5 watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio PSK31 mode RF signal levels received are based on 25 watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio CW mode RF signal levels received are based on 50 watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio SSB RF mode signal levels received are based on 100 watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The HF shortwave broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on 100,000 watts (100 kw) and a typical high gain VOA type curtain array antenna.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Please keep in mind that this is a relatively simplified HF radio wave
propagation forecast, so as to keep it easily understandable and applicable by the average radio enthusiast.

Globally HF radio wave propagation conditions are most evenly balanced
during the fall and spring equinoxes and most diametrically opposed during
the summer and winter solstices.

Conditions change daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and by decade, as the
sun rises and sets at different times and at different angles from the
ecliptic, as well as by radio wave frequency. This is due to changes in the
maximum usable frequency (MUF), lowest usable frequency (LUF) and F layer
critical frequency (FoF2).

The D and E layers also come into play through RF radio wave signal
absorption and refraction. And then there is sporadic E (Es) radio wave
propagation that can really throw a wrench into the gears so to speak.

Things like sporadic E (Es) radio wave propagation and lightning storm
static can impact HF radio wave propagation in an unpredictable manner and
mostly bad.

Ongoing solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on also impact HF radio
wave propagation conditions in a negative manner.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Standard Disclaimer-

Note! I use error prone RAW public domain data from the NOAA Space
Environment Center, other U.S. government entities and educational
institutions, to produce this daily HF radio wave propagation
forecast. This data is gathered and made public by the U.S. Government using
taxpayer $$$ (including mine).

However this daily HF propagation forecast that I produce from the RAW public domain data is my personal intellectual property. Therefore this daily HF radio wave propagation forecast contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2017 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF radio wave propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Also HF radio wave propagation forecasting is still an inexact
science. The forecasts are not official but for educational and hobby
related purposes only and are subject to human error and acts of God,
therefore no guarantee or warranty implied.

W4HM Daily Solar Space & Geomagnetic Weather Discussion Sep 22, 2017

The fall/spring equinox begins today at 4:02 pm EDT/2002 UTC on Friday September 22, 2017.
Hello to my fellow hamateur radio and SWL radio enthusiasts around the world.
Welcome to my “not for profit” W4HM Daily Solar, Space & Geomagnetic Weather Discussion.
If you find this daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion useful to your hamateur and SWL radio activities, feel free to drop me a line and let me know that at
Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and give me credit for it.
Supporting images associated with my daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion can be found in my Facebook account at
and at
but without supporting images.
It's a NO SPAM voluntary "opt" in email type group hosted by contesting on line (COL), so you have to sign up by using an existing email address and creating a password.
And last but not least I also post some snippets of daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on and a few images in my Twitter account at https://twitter.com/GiellaW4hm .
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Published on Friday September 22, 2017 at 1500 UTC
Solar Space & Geomagnetic Weather Conditions on Thursday September 21, 2017-
Solar activity had been low.
Earth's geomagnetic field had been at a quiet geomagnetic level.
The three daily solar flux index (SFI) numbers had been 72.7 73.0 74.8.
The official daily sunspot number (SSN) had been 22.
In 2017 officially there were 56 days with a daily sunspot number (SSN) of 0. Considering that solar minimum won't occur for approximately 2 more years, +/- 1 year, daily SSN's of 0 are occurring unusually early.
In 2016 officially there were 32 days with a daily sunspot number (SSN) of 0.
As we move forward towards the next solar minimum between solar cycle #24 and #25 the number of days with a 0 daily SSN will steadily increase. Eventually every day for many, many, many months will see a 0, the big goose egg.
In 2008 I forecasted solar cycle 24 to be the weakest in the past 100 years and that forecast verified. I also forecasted that solar cycle 25 would be virtually nonexistent, similar to the Dalton type solar minimum that occurred in the early 1800's.
Other than sunspot magnetic polarity it will probably be very difficult to determine when solar cycle 24 ended and solar cycle 25 began.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Officially there had been 2 earth facing sunspot groups (SSG).
Sunspot group (SSG) #12680 was located near N08W80 with a simple alpha magnetic signature. It was capable of producing a small in size C class solar flare. It was setting around the west limb of the sun.
Sunspot group (SSG) #12681 was located near S13E59 with a simple alpha magnetic signature. It was capable of producing a small in size C class solar flare. It was approaching the west limb of the sun.
There had been 2 unofficial and as of yet unnumbered earth facing sunspot groups (SSG) located near
N12E13,
N05E66.
There had been no returning (recurrent) sunspot groups.
(((((On Friday September 22, 2017 I say that monster sunspot group #12673 will rise above the east limb of the sun on approximately Sunday September 24, 2017.)))))
There had been no small in size C class solar flare or larger.
There had been no directly earth aimed (geoeffective) coronal mass ejection (CME).
There had been no partially earth aimed coronal mass ejection (CME).
There had been no directly (geoeffective) or partially earth aimed coronal mass ejection (CME) related high latitude energetic proton storm >10 MeV (10+0).
The high latitude absorption via earths over ionized D layer is called polar cap absorption. The mid latitude absorption is caused by energetic electrons and protons spiraling down earth’s magnetic field lines into the equatorial ring current.
There had been no earth aimed solar flare related x-ray day side solar fade out (SFO).
There had been no directly earth aimed (geoeffective) collapsing magnetic filament eruption.
The 24 hour period 3 hour interval planetary K index (Kp) had been at quiet geomagnetic conditions of
1 1 2 2 1 0 1 2.
The 24 hour period 3 hour interval Boulder, CO K index had been at unsettled to quiet geomagnetic conditions of
1 1 3 2 2 2 1 1.
The K(p) geomagnetic indices are-
0-2- quiet                                                                                                                                                                                                3- unsettled                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4- active                                                                                                                                                                                                 5- minor geomagnetic storming                                                                                                                                                                     6- moderate                                                                                                                                                                                                           7- strong                                                                                                                                                                                                                   8- severe                                                                                                                                                                                                                9- extreme                                                                                                                                                                                            10- our atmosphere just got cooked off like on Mars and we are all dead.
The 24 hour period maximum and minimum planetary A index (Ap) had ranged between
9 and 2,
which was at unsettled to quiet geomagnetic conditions.
The Ap geomagnetic indices are-
0-7- quiet                                                                                                                                                                                                           8-15- unsettled                                                                                                                                                                                                      16-29- active                                                                                                                                                                                                           30-49- minor geomagnetic storm                                                                                                                                                                   50-99- major                                                                                                                                                                                                 100-400- severe                                                                                                                                                                                 >401- our atmosphere just got cooked off like on Mars and we are all dead.
The 24 hour period maximum background x-ray flux had been at A9.2.
The 24 hour period maximum southward swing of the vertical component (Bz) of earth's geomagnetic magnetic field had been at approximately

-4 nT south.

The larger the negative value the further south-north that visible aurora can possibly be observed outside of the polar regions.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum disturbance storm time index (Dst) had ranged between
-26 and -11 nT.
The 24 hour period maximum and minimum solar wind speed ranged had ranged between
459 and 352 km/s.
There was 1 recurrent large in size earth facing transequatorial coronal hole (CH) #826 (#822).
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL HF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-
NOTE!!! The propagation indices "interpretations" are my personal intellectual property. Therefore the radio wave propagation indices interpretations contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2017 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM, all rights reserved. Reproduction of information herein is allowed without permission in advance as long as proper credit is given.
All 14 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to see the best global high frequency radio wave propagation possible, something that happens rarely.
1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.
2.) A daily sunspot number of 150 or higher, 200 or higher best.
3.) A daily sunspot number of greater than 100 for routine stable formation of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.
4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days consecutively are best.
5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.
6.) Energetic protons no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).
7.) Background x-ray flux levels greater than B1 for several days consecutively, greater than C1 best.
8.) No current STRATWARM alert.
9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign, indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF signals, when the Kp is above 3.
10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A positive number is best.
11.) Rising positive T index number. The T Index tracks with the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and sunspot number (SSN) and indicates the capability of the F2 layer to refract RF signals.
12.) Galactic cosmic rays decrease to -3 units below zero and trending towards zero.
13.) Energetic electron flux levels no greater than 2 MeV (2+0).
14. A solar wind speed of less than 300 km/s for several days consecutively.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Standard Disclaimer-
Note! I use error prone RAW public domain data from the NOAA Space Environment Center, other U.S. government entities, educational institutions and some private individuals, to produce my daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion. This data is gathered and made public by the U.S. Government using taxpayer $$$ (including mine).
However this daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion that I produce from the RAW public domain data is my personal intellectual property. Therefore this daily solar, space and geomagnetic weather discussion contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2017 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM